Iceland has several agreements on tax issues with other countries. Persons permanently residing and subject to an unlimited tax obligation in one of the contracting states may be entitled to exemption or reduction in the taxation of income and property, in accordance with the provisions of each agreement, without the income being otherwise doubly taxed. Each agreement is different and it is therefore necessary to review the agreement in question in order to determine where the tax debt of the person concerned is actually located and the taxes prescribed by the agreement. The provisions of tax treaties with other countries may result in a restriction of Icelandic tax law. Tax treaties are formal bilateral agreements between two jurisdictions. Australia has tax agreements with more than 40 jurisdictions. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a group of 36 countries that wants to promote global trade and economic progress. The OECD tax treaty on income and capital is more favourable to capital-exporting countries than capital-importing countries. The two countries concerned will benefit from such an agreement if the trade and investment flows between the two countries are reasonably the same and the country of residence taxes all income exempt from the country of origin. While the double taxation conventions provide for the exemption from double taxation, Hungary has only about 73. This means that Hungarian citizens who receive income from the 120 countries and territories with which Hungary does not have a contract will be taxed by Hungary, regardless of the tax that has already been paid elsewhere. Within the European Union, Member States have concluded a multilateral agreement on the exchange of information.
 This means that they will provide each (its counterparts in the other jurisdiction) with a list of persons who have applied for exemption from local taxation because they are not established in the state where the income is generated. These people should have declared that foreign income in their own country of residence, so any difference suggests tax evasion. The revised Convention on the Prevention of Double Taxation between India and Cyprus, signed on 18 November 2016, provides for a tax on capital gains from the disposal of shares instead of a home-related tax under the Convention on the Prevention of Double Taxation, signed in 1994. However, a grandfather clause is provided for investments made before April 1, 2017 and for which capital gains continue to be taxed in the country where the taxpayer is based. It also provides assistance between the two countries for the collection of taxes and updates the provisions on the exchange of information to recognized international standards.